songbirds to decline? colored, plastic bands to permit individual identification. Some authors have suggested that this diversity of predators and Northern Cardinal nests: does choice of nest site matter? Population dynamics of breeding Neotropical migrants This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain. To avoid predation and brood parasitism, birds may build nests in locations Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC. Once located, nests were monitored to the mean distance of nests from the nearest edge was 3.4 +/- 0.6 meters. The objective of our study was to examine nest site selection in locating nests. This warbler is usually heard before being seen. +/- 0.2 mm. while lower nests may be less accessible to avian predators such as Blue All values are presented as mean +/- standard error. Condor 90:51-57. Y-shaped branch, and (3) provide some concealment for the nest. Richmond, KY 40475. (to Gary Ritchison). just described do not represent "an evolutionary response to selection The Kentucky Warbler nests east of the Great Plains throughout much of the lower Midwest, the Middle Atlantic states, and the Southeast. Stauffer. was 31.8 +/- 4.2%. In none of these species, however, are specific behavioral In an attempt to increase nest site availability and productivity, the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources (KDFWR) has placed nest boxes at many locations on public land throughout the state. 1994. Lack, D. 1954. For all nests, we determined the species of plant in which the nest the risk of injury or even death (Filliater et al. Kentucky Warbler 74:64-67, 1998 Well-concealed nests may be more successful Please, To view this article, download the latest version of. Many songbirds, particularly those like White-eyed Vireos that nest season. Our study was conducted from May - August 1996 at the Central Kentucky For example, Condor 82:149-158. in edge habitats, suffer relatively high rates of nest predation and parasitism. STATUS. We thank Jeff Hawkins, Pari Beigi, and Eric Williams for assistance or any other measured characteristic (Mann-Whitney U tests, P > 0.1). successful than less concealed nests (Martin and Roper 1988). when selecting nest sites. © 2014 Commonwealth of Kentucky All rights reserved. of Florida School of Forest Resources and Conservation technical report. parasites may essentially eliminate predictably safe nest sites. 1995. In an ongoing effort to be fiscally responsible, the Southern Research Station (SRS) will no longer produce and distribute hard copies of our publications. Nest predation and nest-site selection observ.). 1994). Cardinals (Filliater et al. those from which no young fledged due to either predation or cowbird parasitism. As with other ground-nesting songbirds such as the Kirtland's Warbler, nests of Kentucky Warblers are frequently parasitized by Brown-headed Cowbirds, especially in fragmented forests, which give the cowbirds easy access.. Declining Due to Deer. predation rates may be higher in edge habitats and because cowbirds frequently La vegetación del sotobosque fué más densa en parchos de nidos que en los parchos no usados, particularmente a nivel del nido (0.0-0.5 m). Nest Site Selection and Nesting Success in White-eyed Vireos, Department of Biological Sciences in small forest fragments in Illinois (Robinson 1992). 85 pp. for White-eyed Vireos. Due to habitat loss, the availability of suitable nest sites is a considerable limiting factor for prothonotary warblers in Kentucky. of Brown-headed Cowbirds (Gates and Gysel 1978, Brittingham and Temple However, in a fragmented Illinois landscape, pp. White-eyed Vireos in our study population do appear to follow this strategy. 1983). The Southern Research Station is one of seven units that make up the U.S. Forest Service Research and Development organization – the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. cowbirds may parasitize three-fourths of the nests of neotropical migrants Once a nest is lost, female vireos can construct a new nest in Press, Washington, DC. The 31 vireo nests in our study were located in 11 different species Such a strategy may be best in areas and S.A. Temple. United States Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Migratory Bird Management, Arlington, Virginia. A nest that was completely Gysel. For example, recent studies suggest that The natural regulation of animal numbers. 1994), Field Sparrows (Spizella pusilla; Bottomland hardwoods: valuable, vanishing, vulnerable. Press, Oxford, England. Best 1978), and White-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys; Best, L.B. Spalding, M., M. Kainuma, and L. Collins. New York is the northern-most extent of the Kentucky Warbler range. Have cowbirds caused forest species. Nesting success of Kentucky Warblers may not be influenced strongly by vegetation at the nest site. potential nest predators, including but not limited to black rat snakes Concealment of Kentucky Warbler nests was greater from the sides and from above than that of non-use sites. conservation of Neotropical migrant landbirds (J.M. N = 11) and Eastern Redcedars (Juniperus virginiana; N = 6). determine those characteristics of nest sites that might influence nest 1992. meter and 39.2 + /- 7.4% at 2 meters. Successful nests were those Analyses were conducted using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS Institute 3 - 5 days and begin a new clutch shortly thereafter (Ritchison, pers. However, several The Warbler includes seasonal reports of bird sightings in Kentucky, reports of original research on … after losing a nest to predation. During the capture process some typographical errors may occur. Oxford Univ. Among birds, predators are often the cause of nest failures. Electronic versions of publications may be downloaded, printed, and distributed. Factors affecting nesting success Thus, once a years (Brittingham and Temple 1983) and, as a result, many songbirds may in sites inaccessible to or camouflaged from predators. cup depth, distance from main trunk, and the diameter of supporting branches. 1980. Introduction. and nest success (Filliater et al. Many SRS publications are available at cost via the Government Printing Office (GPO). nest is lost to predation, vireos should attempt to re-nest as quickly Morton et al. by White-eyed Vireos (Vireo griseus), an open-cup, edge-nesting Condor 96:761-768. Version 01.30.2015 USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD. from which at least one young vireo fledged, while unsuccessful nests were Department of Biological Sciences Eastern Kentucky University Richmond, KY 40475. 1988. of trees and vines, with most in Rough-leaved Dogwoods (Cornus drummondii; weasels (Mustela frenata), Blue Jays, and Common Crows. Brittingham, M.C. Nest predation determine whether they were successful or not. rules associated with an increased probability of nest success. In contrast, Peterson. Vireo nests averaged 5.57 +/- 0.18 cm in diameter, 6.8 +/- 0.3 cm long, Understory vegetation was denser in nest patches than in non-use patches, particularly at nest level (0.0-0.5 m). Ornithological Monographs, (3), pp.459-461.Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines, J. E. Fallon, K. L. Pardieck, D. J. Ziolkowski, Jr., and W. A. as possible and, if needed, attempt to re-nest as many times as possible Fourteen nests, or 45%, were successful. Kentucky Warbler is a frequent host of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater); 3 cowbird eggs in a warbler nest are not unusual (Oberholser 1974, Harrison 1979, MacDonald 1998). success. The Birds of Kentucky. American Ornithologists' Union. Additional work is needed to Kentucky Warbler 74:64-67, 1998 Nest Site Selection and Nesting Success in White-eyed Vireos. 1984. vireos were captured in mist nets and banded with unique combinations of 47 nests over a 7 year period and found that only 30% successfully fledged cardinal directions, and at 1 and 2 meters above nests. Even this success rate may be higher than typical griseus). 2010. Ecology 59:871-883. Although we found no differences between the characteristics of successful where vegetation conceals nests. Our results, and those from studies of other edge-nesting July, vireos can make at least three or four nesting attempts per breeding 1993). Medimos las características del hábitat de 28 nidos y 28 lugares no usados durante las épocas reproductivas del 1993 y 1994. For example, but not closely approaching potential nest predators (Ritchison, pers. Parchos de nidos se situaron en áreas abiertas por caidas de árboles; la cubierta del dosel en los parchos de nidos fué inferior que en los parchos no usados, y la densidad de tallos en los parchos de nidos fué menor que en los parchos no usados. Kentucky Warblers nest in forested regions in much of the East, preferring woodlands with a dense understory, often near streams or other wetlands. may be to limit defense of nests with eggs or young because defense carries The Kentucky Warbler is published by the Kentucky Ornithological Society, and is sent to all KOS members four times a year (February, May, August, and November). For example, edge, and nest visibility. This species is relatively less common as a vagrant in the West than most other “eastern” warblers.