It’s important to use clear signals to alert the reader that the paper is about to express a view different from (typically, the opposite of) the thesis. Loewen, James. (There’s a second assumption, which is that students don’t need to bother with what’s in the past. A few sentences or even a whole paragraph is not an unreasonable amount of space to give to the counter-argument. Here are two outlines showing the most common placement of the counter-argument. Davis Oldham You might be very familiar with racism but still not know what causes it. Then, you refine your original thesis to say something like this: Students should learn what causes racism, but should not be constantly lectured that “racism is bad.” Instead, they should be taught the causes and history in a way that they find interesting and that lets them decide their own values. Either the facts are wrong, the analysis is incorrect, or the values it is based on are not acceptable. You want to use ones that are actually somewhat persuasive. This counter-argument is based on an assumed value that your readers probably do not share—namely, the idea that it’s ok for students to be racist. These are generic examples; they work best when tailored to suit the specifics of the individual topic. The factual assumption in this example is that racism is a thing of the past. Done well, it makes the argument stronger. The police serve an integral part in society as its protectors. The reader needs warnings and guidance or they will fall off or get whiplash—you’ll lose them, in other words, because the essay will seem incoherent or contradictory. FOSS 5355 Let’s take a modified version of the second example given above (learning about racism might make students more racist). How should a counter-argument be presented? Sample Essay with Counter Argument in Intro. Adding to your physique paragraphs, commit a piece to debate the counter arguments by foreseeing the contrasting perspectives together with the key points within the essay. But isn’t it true that [state the counter-argument here]? Why would you include a counter-argument in your essay? It expresses the view of a person who disagrees with your position. Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong. Put yourself in their shoes and give them the benefit of the doubt. (Here again there’s a faulty assumption, implied but not stated: Previous generations supposedly did function adequately in civic life. However, it’s also very common to place them after the presentation of the case for the thesis. Then you would rebut, or answer, the counter-argument as a way to strengthen your own position. In all cases, the job of this transitional language is to show the reader that the opposing view is now being answered. Since the purpose of the whole paper, including the counter-argument, is to support the thesis, these signals are crucial. Our examples of argumentative essays can help demonstrated what one looks like. Close by stating your own argument and why your argument is stronger than the identified counterargument. The response here would be to show that previous generations did not “function adequately in civic life,” because they had a lot of problems with racism (segregation and more hidden forms of discrimination). Examples of each are given below. Argument . (Note that here, too, there’s a faulty assumption: being familiar with something is not the same as knowing what causes it.). They all look flawed to you because you can point out their errors and show why your view is better. Counter-arguments can be very effective in introductions, especially if you are arguing against a popularly held view. It also shows that you are a reasonable person who has considered both sides of the debate. This is because it gives you the chance to respond to your reader’s objections before they have finished reading. Do not just write a quick sentence and then immediately rebut it. One of the most effective ways to rebut a counter-argument is to show that it is based on faulty assumptions. These opposing positions are called counterarguments. endogenous vitamin d essay; find examples of apush essays; chicago style citation unpublished dissertation. It is tempting to say that facts are the currency of the modern world, and that students must learn as many facts as possible. Loewen’s argument shares this assumption, so you wouldn’t rebut it.). If you yourself are somewhat unsure of the position you’ve chosen as your thesis, it will be easier for you to identify good counter-arguments. Most people will probably not find the “Who cares if students are racist” argument very convincing. For more on this topic, see the “Counterargument’ section of the “Argument” web page at the University of North Carolina Writing Center. This is because it In that book Loewen makes the claim that “To function adequately in civic life … students must learn what causes racism” (143). This is a very common form of counter-argument, one that actually rebuts a different argument. Again, the point is to show your reader that you have considered all sides of the question, and to make it easier to answer the counter-argument. Bullying is often thought of as a natural part of society and when a person is bullied, the offender is … Think of it this way: if my argument is that dogs are better pets than cats because they are more social, but you argue that cats are better pets because they are more self-sufficient, your position is a counterargumentto my position. Generally, the counter-argument will begin with a word, phrase or sentence to indicate that what follows is not the author’s view. Every argumentative essay should be based on a topic that can be debated. Doesn’t that weaken your argument? The first is probably the most common. You already recognize that there are reasonable arguments on the other side—that’s why you’re a little unsure. Doesn’t that weaken your argument? What is included in a counterargument paragraph? When writing your counterargument paragraph, you should respond to that other position. So, studying racism might just make them want to be racist out of sheer contrariness. These can range from the very simple—sometimes the single word “But” or “However” is sufficient—to quite complex whole sentences: In his majisterial work on representation in western literature, a foundational text in the discipline, Auerbach argues that the mixture of styles is an essential ingredient of all modern realism, a view that has found wide acceptance in the half-century since its publication. Another response would be to show that students must understand the past as well as the present “to function adequately in civic life.”). View a Sample The essay has returned to arguing its own thesis, strengthened by having taken the opposition into account. They’ll be much more likely to be persuaded then. These include a classic example of an argumentative essay with an introduction, background, an argument, counter-opinions, and conclusion. 101 Home Students are already familiar with racism; they don’t need to study it in school. Make sure you express the counter-argument fairly and objectively. Of course, values are both deeply personal and extremely varied, so you’re always going to have some readers who do not share yours. Including a counterargument paragraph when writing an argumentative paper shows your reader you know and understand that other positions exist, you have considered these, and you can respond to them. Facebook Twitter. Racism is a thing of the past; therefore, students don’t need to bother with it. Many students are, in fact, already familiar with racism. These opposing positions are called counterarguments. Read the introductory part, body, and conclusion of the paper below. A counter argument can be any argument in opposition to a thesis. While this position is popular, it is [not supported by the facts/not logical/impractical/etc. Obviously, if you really believe the position expressed in your thesis, you will not be able to be completely objective in how you express the counter-argument—but you should try. Give reasons why someone might actually hold that view. Done well, it makes the argument stronger. ], Although the core of this claim is valid, it suffers from a flaw in its [reasoning/application/etc. Think of it this way: if my argument is that dogs are better pets than cats because they are more social, but you argue that cats are better pets because they are more self-sufficient, your position is a counterargument to my position. Being aware of counter-arguments is like defending yourself against attack. Notice, however, that even this sentence is careful to attribute these views to other people, and to call them “views”—in other words, to subtly hint that they are not facts or truths.